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Project: T182700 #03/104

Volume 1

The following document describes a methodology to estimate the cost of increased starts and stops and other forms of variable operation at hydroelectric plants. This methodology was based on CEATI Report T152700-0391, titled “Effects on Hydropower Equipment from Variable Operations, with a Focus on Start/Stop,” which was supplemented over the course of this project (Greisen & Norlin, 2016). A methodology for estimating costs of starts and stops and other forms of variable operation, such as ramping, synchronous condensing, and rough zone operation, was developed, as well as a Microsoft Excel model to apply the methodology and to estimate an initial range of costs. Areas of refinement were identified for the methodology and model, and potential short- and long-term project next steps.


Start/stop, variable operation, cycling costs


Volume 2

The following document summarizes the literature review to supplement “Effects on Hydropower Equipment from Variable Operations, With a Focus on Start/Stop” (Greisen & Norlin, 2016). The authors selected literature to support development of a cost model for variable operation, which will be developed in subsequent tasks of this project.

Through this study, the investigators:

– Reviewed reports, studies, and presentations concerning impacts from start/stop cycles and other types of variable operation on hydroelectric power units

– Summarized each report, study, and presentation as to its objective, content, and applicability to developing the cost model

– Reviewed case studies for increased variable operations presented in the literature

– Reviewed approaches from the fossil and petrochemical industries

– Discussed how this literature review applies to development of the cost model

This literature review produced valuable findings for developing a cost model for start/stop and other forms of cycling.


Start/stop, variable operation, asset management, operational impacts