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Project: T112700 #0420

CEATI’s Hydropower Operations and Planning Interest Group (HOPIG) commissioned an assessment of the current state of knowledge with respect to technologies and methodologies that could potentially be used by the hydropower industry to obtain more reliable estimates of evaporative water losses from lakes and reservoirs.

Phase 1 of the project consisted of a comprehensive search and assessment of available relevant literature and an online survey, aimed at water resource managers and scientists, to complement the results of the literature search. In Phase 2, all technologies, methodologies and approaches documented in Phase 1 were assessed more extensively according to an evaluation framework agreed upon by the Contractor and HOPIG. Scientific developments are improving the understanding of open-water evaporation processes.

These will continue to be incorporated into existing approaches for the estimation of evaporative losses of water. This report specifies research areas or directions that would provide further gains in theoretical and practical knowledge that could ultimately benefit HOPIG members in their pursuit of improved solutions for water balance estimates. One key conclusion is that better performing and more cost-effective solutions will be based on various combinations of technologies, models and approaches that together will form an array of solutions, each one of which will be uniquely suited to the needs of a particular operational water management situation.


Evaporation, Lake, Reservoir, Water body, Open water, Evaporative loss, Estimation, Monitoring, Forecasting, Operation, Literature review, Methods, Techniques, Evaluation, Water Balance, Mass transfer, Energy balance, Combination, Penman, Empirical, Potential evapotranspiration, Pan, Bowen ratio, Eddy covariance, LiDAR, Scintillometry, Surface renewal, Complementary relationship, Remote sensing