Project: T173700 #3723

Existing standards on working grounds define current ratings and provide graphs for estimating touch potentials for different placements of working grounds to define a safe working zone.  Utilities need simple but quantitative tools to calculate the stresses seen by working grounds and by staff when X/R ratios differ from rated values, when applied away from stations along lines and when orientations relative to source conductors differ from pictures in the standards.  As well, utilities need tools to review ancillary topics such as capacitively and magnetically coupled voltages and currents that affect voltage testing and arcing when installing and removing working grounds. Tools to calculate step and touch voltages and currents when working around vehicles may also prove useful to utilities.