Independent consulting companies are increasingly designing grounding at customer and utility owned stations. Inconsistencies in these designs and misinterpretations of requirements have, at times, due to the variety of guidelines and standards, resulted in parochial jurisdiction and differing approval processes. Examples include questions of whether pad mount transformers constitute substations, whether credit may be assumed for connections to overhead ground wires and neutrals owned by different entities, and whether the use of standardized designs can replace custom engineering studies. This report opens with an extensive literature review, beginning with summaries of the information available in a number of applicable standards, followed by additional requirements seen in geographically-based jurisdictions, and bookended by the information found in a number of reports on grounding. The utility survey chapter first covers distribution voltage installations such as pad mount transformers downstream of supplying substations, followed by utility and customer owned distribution and transmission stations. The heart of the report explores IEEE Std 80 section by section, discussing any limitations while adding material from other standards, guidelines, and research reports. The following chapter provides a compact step-by-step guideline for selecting grid conductor size and achieving coordination of step and touch potentials. This includes a worked example for a typical substation.
Station grounding, Grounding standards, Grounding guidelines