This study examines the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of gas heat pumps and dual-fuel electric systems in the service territory of Consolidated Edison and Orange and Rockland utilities, covering New York City and much of the Hudson Valley. The review of previous gas heat pump pilot projects found in-situ coefficients of performance to be 1.05-1.3; a central figure of 1.15 was used for estimating energy savings and cost effectiveness. Gas heat pumps have the potential to save about 30% of space and water heating energy demand in centrally heated existing buildings, while dual-fuel electric systems were assumed to reduce gas use by 80%. Compared to conventional gas or electric systems, gas heat pumps (both absorption and engine-driven systems) face additional market and regulatory barriers. Due to the high capital cost of gas heat pumps, heat exchangers, and the associated plumbing, gas heat pumps were found to only be cost effective in baseload water heating applications where the system can have a high utilization, thus maximizing energy savings, or in space heating applications where the gas heat pump displaced oil heating. Dual-fuel systems were never cost effective from the consumer perspective due to the high cost of electricity, but are potentially cost effective from a societal perspective due to GHG emissions reductions and lower off-peak avoided electricity supply costs.
HVAC, DHW, Gas Heat Pump, Dual Fuel Heat Pump, Sorption, Vapor Compression, Thermal Compression, Technology Characterization, Energy Savings, Potential, Technical, Economic, Market
The goal of this report is to provide M&V practitioners with the ability to produce accurate in-situ estimates of gas heat pump (GHP) performance. It consolidates knowledge from previous M&V best practices guides, GHP pilot projects, and interviews with industry. This report includes the main thermal delivery mechanisms for GHPs (air, water, or refrigerant), but is limited to air source GHPs. Gas heat pump water heaters (GHPWHs), which use indoor air as their heat source, are also included. The report gives M&V practitioners recommendations for how to carry out each component of M&V for GHPs, which include tasks such as selecting the IPMVP, selecting meters and metering periods, making regressions from metered data, normalizing the data, and calculating loads, energy consumption, and system efficiency. The report also provides recommendations for running M&V projects effectively and for reporting M&V results so that the information will be applicable across jurisdictions.
HVAC, DHW, Gas Heat Pump, Sorption, Vapor Compression, Thermal Compression, M&V, Measurement, Verification, Best Practices